<address id="9jvv9"></address>
      <address id="9jvv9"><address id="9jvv9"><listing id="9jvv9"></listing></address></address>
      <address id="9jvv9"><nobr id="9jvv9"><meter id="9jvv9"></meter></nobr></address>
      <form id="9jvv9"></form>
      <em id="9jvv9"></em>

      How to identify plant galls

      Galls are abnormal growths caused when another organism interferes with a plant’s cells. We have illustrated 12 of the most curious and colourful galls to look for.

      bean-galls_Felicity-Rose-Cole_623-8128005

      All illustrations by Felicity Rose Cole

      Advertisement

      ?

      1

      Bean gall (above)

      Caused by the sawfly Pontania proxima. Forms on upper surfaces?of willow leaves, especially crack?willow and weeping willow.

      2

      Spruce pineapple gall

      spruce20pineapple20Felicity20Rose20Cole-9c10188

      Caused by the aphid Adelges abietis. Found on the twigs of spruce trees,?often Norway spruce. Young aphids shelter inside the gall cavities.

      3

      Fern gall

      fern20gall_Felicity20Rose20Cole-ddf4e25

      Made by the fly Chirosia betuleti. Occurs on ferns, especially male fern, causing rolled-over, deformed frond tips. Fly larvae dig into the fern stem.

      4

      Reed cigar gall

      red20cigar20Felicity20Rose20Cole-d6fb163

      Caused by the fly Lipara lucens. A common, cigar-shaped gall on reed stems; conspicuous in late autumn. Each gall contains a single fly larva.

      5

      Ergot

      ergot20Felicity20Rose20Cole-4916b0e

      Caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea. Occurs on seeds of grass, including rye and false oat. Toxic –?was a scourge of medieval Europe.

      6

      Tassel gall

      tassel20gall20on20rush20Felicity20Rose20Cole-08268fa

      Caused by the psyllid (jumping plant louse) Livia juncorum. Found on flowerheads of rushes. Common?in damp places throughout UK.

      7

      Ramshorn gall

      ramshorn20Felicity20Rose20Cole-52799ec

      Made by the gall wasp Andricus aries. Occurs on oak trees, turning the buds into long prongs. Mainly in south;?first seen in UK in 1997, but spreading.

      8

      Pea gall

      pea20gall20Felicity20Rose20Cole-37aae89

      Made by the gall wasp Cynips divisa. Occurs on undersides of oak leaves, falling in autumn. Wasps emerge in winter and lay their eggs in oak buds.

      9

      Silk button spangle gall

      silk20button20spangle20Felicity20Rose20Cole-a3793f3

      Made by the gall wasp Neuroterus numismalis. Found on oak leaves, often in big numbers. Falls to ground in autumn; wasps emerge in spring.

      10

      Witch’s broom

      witches20broom20Felicity20Rose20Cole-fd222fb

      Has many causes, including insects, mites, fungi and viruses; usual trigger is the fungus Taphrina betulina. Occurs on birch and cherry trees.

      11

      Nail gall

      nail20galls20Felicity20Rose20Cole-0a25ce0

      Caused by the mite Eriophyes tiliae. Very common on lime tree foliage, appearing in summer and persisting until leaf fall in autumn.

      12

      Robin’s pincushion

      robins20pin20cushion20Felicity20Rose20Cole-b70c4d1
      Advertisement

      Made by the gall wasp Diplolepis rosae. Found on wild roses. The?red, feathery mass contains many chambers, each with a wasp grub.

      白小姐四肖必选一肖中特